What is 'Net Zero': PM Modi promised in COP26, what is the preparation to reach the target, know everything

Rachna Kumari
Rachna Kumari 02/11/2021 16:31 IST
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Greenhouse gases are believed to be responsible for climate change around the world. This is the gas whose excessive emissions are causing global warming all over the world. The most prominent of these gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO).

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday participated in the UN's climate change program COP26 in Glasgow, Scotland. Here for the first time, Modi announced the period to achieve the goal of net-zero in India's emissions. Modi said that India will achieve net-zero by 2070. That is, the target set by India to reach net-zero is two decades more than the global target of 2050. However, Modi gave many arguments on this delay on the part of India and also demanded the cooperation of developing countries from developed countries.

Meanwhile, it is important to understand that what is the net-zero that the PM has set a target to achieve by 2070? Also, what steps are going to be taken by the Government of India in the coming time to achieve this goal, and why India will take delay in achieving this goal between the world's target of achieving Net Zero by 2050.

What is Net Zero?
Significantly, many European countries, including the US, have been continuously talking about achieving the net-zero emission target by 2050.Net zero means that all countries have to achieve carbon neutrality, that is, neutrality in carbon emissions to stop climate change. This does not mean at all that a country can reduce carbon emissions to zero (which is impossible). Rather, net-zero means that the emissions figure of any country should keep the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere constant.

In simple language, this thing can be understood in three points...

1. Greenhouse gases are believed to be responsible for climate change around the world. This is the gas whose excessive emissions are causing global warming all over the world. The most prominent of these gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (NO). Apart from this, some carbon and fluorine gas compounds made by humans are also counted as greenhouse gases, because they also release energy into the atmosphere, which ultimately leads to global warming. That is, excessive emission of these gases causes heat on the earth.

2. One of the reasons for the increase in the temperature of the earth is believed to be the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Fossil fuels and compounds used in everyday electronic devices (fridges, ACs) (Chlorofluorocarbons-CFCs), etc. are responsible for more accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The dangerous elements emanating from them cause great harm to nature.

3. Since the use of fossil fuels and everyday necessities around the world cannot be stopped suddenly. In such a situation, a target has been set to reduce their emissions. Many developed countries have set this target only till 2050. He says that the rich countries, considering their responsibility, will have to stop the use of fossil fuels as soon as possible and also curb the use of compounds that harm nature. So that the emission of greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide) is reduced.

So what is the goal of Net Zero?
Scientists say that the entire life of human beings is dependent on carbon. Everything from the human body to its surroundings is also made up of the addition of carbon and other elements. That is, carbon emissions can never be eliminated. But the level at which it is being emitted at present can be brought under control. This means that a country is absorbing and removing as many carbon-based greenhouse gases as it is emitting into the atmosphere. That is, the contribution of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from his side is negligible. This is called Net-Zero.

How can the Net Zero target be achieved?
It would be better to understand it through example. In the world, due to the increasing use of CFCs in fossil fuel vehicles (cars, buses, ships, etc.) and refrigerators, ACs, the emission of greenhouse gases has also increased. This increasing emission can be reduced through green forests. Trees that absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Apart from this, emissions can be curbed through some other futuristic technologies.

These techniques can also be used to reduce the use of fossil fuels. For example, solar energy from the sun is now being used to run all kinds of machines. Apart from this, emphasis is also being laid on electric and green fuel vehicles. Due to these, pollution, as well as carbon emissions, can also be reduced and many countries are contributing to the emission of greenhouse gases, they can reach zero or even negative levels. Currently, Bhutan and Suriname are the two countries that have achieved net-zero emissions because they absorb more carbon than they are releasing.

Why is it important to achieve Net Zero?
For the last two years, the target of Net-Zero has been continuously emphasized. Developed countries say that if this target is not met by 2050, then the Paris Agreement of 2015 will not be fulfilled. The goal of this agreement is to prevent the Earth's temperature from rising more than 2 degrees Celsius by the middle of the century. However, due to the way emissions levels continue, the Earth's temperature is expected to increase by 3 to 4 degrees by the end of the century.

What are India's objections?
While developed countries have set a target of achieving Net Zero by 2050, PM Modi has set this target at 2070. India has been objecting to achieving the net-zero target early from the beginning. The reason for this is that being a developing country, India's dependence on fossil fuels is the highest right now. Unlike developed countries, India's economy is also growing continuously, due to which energy needs will continue to grow and there is no possibility of India's emissions level coming down for the next two to three decades.

Due to the growing modern infrastructure, maximum afforestation is also very difficult for India. However, even if forest wealth is preserved, it will be very difficult for India to reduce emissions for at least the next two decades. Apart from this, the technology of removing carbon from the atmosphere is either too expensive or not reliable. In such a situation, it is very difficult for the population of India to achieve the target of net zero in the coming years.

Why are India's objections correct?
In principle, India's objections are also considered correct. The net-zero target was never part of the 2015 Paris Agreement. The countries involved in this agreement only had to build an infrastructure to fight climate change and set their goals for five to ten years, so that they can show that these countries are serious about climate change. India has also promised to reduce carbon emissions by 2030 and promote renewable energy. Promoting Solar Energy Alliance around the world is part of this policy of India.

Earlier, it has been revealed in many reports that India is the only country among the G-20 countries, which is working to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement and the goal of keeping the global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius. Even the steps of the European Union (EU) and the US have been termed insufficient to stop climate change. That is, India is discharging its responsibilities in a better way according to its population.

Category: India